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MOP 28 of the Montreal Protocol Adopts the Kigali Amendment to Phase Down HFCs

Monday, 31 October 2016
The 28th Meeting of the Montreal Protocol Parties on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (MOP 28) was convened from 8 to 14 October 2016 in Kigali, Rwanda. It immediately followed the resumed session of the 38th Open-Ended Working Group of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol (OEWG-38) held on 8 October 2016. During the meeting, the 197 Parties to the Montreal Protocol adopted the so-called Kigali amendment to the Montreal Protocol.

Following seven years of intense negotiations, the delegates agreed to amend the Montreal Protocol so as to phase down the use and production of potent greenhouse gases, known as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Building upon the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR), the Kigali amendment provides for flexible HFC phase down schedule. In this context, the majority of developed countries will start to cut down HFCs emissions in 2019. Developing countries, known as ‘Article 5 Parties’ under the Montreal Protocol, will follow with a freeze of HFCs consumption levels in 2024, with some countries freezing consumption in 2028. By the late 2040s, all countries are expected to consume no more than 15-20 per cent of their respective baselines. Under the Kigali amendment, developed countries committed to channel additional funding to the Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol to help developing countries to meet their obligations and improve energy efficiency.

The Kigali amendment will enter into force on 1 January 2019, provided that it is ratified by at least 20 parties. If that condition is not met by 2019, the Amendment will become effective 90 days after 20 parties ratify it.

It is estimated that the implementation of the Kigali amendment could prevent up to 0.5 degrees Celsius of global warming by the end of this century. Importantly, the Kigali amendment is considered to be the single largest contribution the world has made towards keeping the global temperature rise "well below" 2 degrees Celsius, a target included in the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement.

The Kigali Amendment came only days after two other climate action milestones: sealing the international deal to curb emissions from aviation and achieving the critical mass of ratifications for the Paris climate accord to enter into force.

Sources: UNEP News Center
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